SpringBoot项目搭建

作者:xcbeyond
疯狂源自梦想,技术成就辉煌!微信公众号:《程序猿技术大咖》号主,专注后端开发多年,拥有丰富的研发经验,乐于技术输出、分享,现阶段从事微服务架构项目的研发工作,涉及架构设计、技术选型、业务研发等工作。对于Java、微服务、数据库、Docker有深入了解,并有大量的调优经验。












一、引言:

什么是spring boot?

    Spring Boot是由Pivotal团队提供的全新框架,其设计目的是用来简化新Spring应用的初始搭建以及开发过程。该框架使用了特定的方式来进行配置,从而使开发人员不再需要定义样板化的配置。用我的话来理解,就是spring boot其实不是什么新的框架,它默认配置了很多框架的使用方式,就像maven整合了所有的jar包,spring boot整合了所有的框架(不知道这样比喻是否合适)。

    使用spring boot有什么好处?
    其实就是简单、快速、方便!平时如果我们需要搭建一个spring web项目的时候需要怎么做呢?
1)配置web.xml,加载spring和spring mvc
2)配置数据库连接、配置spring事务
3)配置加载配置文件的读取,开启注解
4)配置日志文件
...
配置完成之后部署tomcat 调试
...

但是如果使用spring boot呢?

很简单,我仅仅只需要非常少的几个配置就可以迅速方便的搭建起来一套web项目或者是构建一个微服务!

使用sping boot是不是很爽,不信,接下来往下看!

二、基础环境准备

(以Spring Boot 2.1.0.BUILD-SNAPSHOT版本搭建)

1、JDK环境安装

       Spring Boot 2.1.0.BUILD-SNAPSHOT要求java8以上版本。在开始之前需要检查开发环境jdk版本是否符合要求,使用以下命令检查当前jdk版本:

C:\Users\Administrator><strong><span style="color:#ff0000;">java -version</span></strong>
java version "1.8.0_121"
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_121-b13)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.121-b13, mixed mode)
2、Maven安装

Spring Boot与Apache Maven 3.2或更高版本兼容。如果您尚未安装Maven,则可以按照maven.apache.org上的说明进行操作。

(对于为何要安装Maven,请自行查阅Maven相关资料)

三、创建SpringBoot项目

开发工具:Eclipse Jee Oxygen(v4.7.0)

1、创建Maven 工程。
 

2、创建pom.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
 
    <groupId>com.xcbeyond</groupId>
    <artifactId>springboot</artifactId>
    <version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <packaging>jar</packaging>
 
    <name>springboot</name>
    <description>Demo project for Spring Boot</description>
 
    <parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>2.0.0.RELEASE</version>
        <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
    </parent>
    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
        <spring-cloud.version>Finchley.M9</spring-cloud.version>
    </properties>
 
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
 
    </dependencies>
 
    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>${spring-cloud.version}</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>
 
    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>
 
    <repositories>
        <repository>
            <id>spring-milestones</id>
            <name>Spring Milestones</name>
            <url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url>
            <snapshots>
                <enabled>false</enabled>
            </snapshots>
        </repository>
    </repositories>
 
</project>
注:可以利用eclipse打开pom.xml图形界面方式添加依赖包。

3、编写代码。

(1)、SpringBoot启动类

新建SpringbootApplication.java文件,如下:

package com.xcbeyond.springboot;
 
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
/**
 * SpringBoot启动类
 * @author xcbeyond
 * 2018年7月2日下午5:41:45
 */
@SpringBootApplication
public class SpringbootApplication {
 
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(SpringbootApplication.class, args);
    }
}
注:注解@SpringBootApplication,稍后会有章节详细说明。

(2)Controller

新建ControllerDemo.java,如下:

package com.xcbeyond.springboot.controller;
 
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
/**
 * Controller demo
 * @author xcbeyond
 * 2018年7月5日下午11:22:49
 */
 
@RestController
public class ControllerDemo {
 
    @RequestMapping("/print")
    public String print() {
        return "hello SpringBoot!";
    }
}
说明:

@RestController的意思就是controller里面的方法都以json格式输出,不用再写什么配置!

四、运行SpringBoot工程

(1)启动。

 直接运行上述的SpringbootApplication类即可,启动后可以看到类似于如下日志输出:
 

2018-07-05 23:02:49.681  INFO 8932 --- [           main] c.x.springboot.SpringbootApplication     : Starting SpringbootApplication on xcbeyond with PID 8932 (E:\micro-service\micro-service\springboot\target\classes started by Administrator in E:\micro-service\micro-service\springboot)
2018-07-05 23:02:49.687  INFO 8932 --- [           main] c.x.springboot.SpringbootApplication     : No active profile set, falling back to default profiles: default
2018-07-05 23:02:49.767  INFO 8932 --- [           main] ConfigServletWebServerApplicationContext : Refreshing org.springframework.boot.web.servlet.context.AnnotationConfigServletWebServerApplicationContext@4c40b76e: startup date [Thu Jul 05 23:02:49 CST 2018]; root of context hierarchy
2018-07-05 23:02:51.628  INFO 8932 --- [           main] o.s.b.w.embedded.tomcat.TomcatWebServer  : Tomcat initialized with port(s): 8080 (http)
2018-07-05 23:02:51.655  INFO 8932 --- [           main] o.apache.catalina.core.StandardService   : Starting service [Tomcat]
2018-07-05 23:02:51.655  INFO 8932 --- [           main] org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine  : Starting Servlet Engine: Apache Tomcat/8.5.28
2018-07-05 23:02:51.679  INFO 8932 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.a.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener   : The APR based Apache Tomcat Native library which allows optimal performance in production environments was not found on the java.library.path: [C:\Program Files\Java\jre1.8.0_171\bin;C:\Windows\Sun\Java\bin;C:\Windows\system32;C:\Windows;C:/Program Files/Java/jre1.8.0_171/bin/server;C:/Program Files/Java/jre1.8.0_171/bin;C:/Program Files/Java/jre1.8.0_171/lib/amd64;C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Oracle\Java\javapath;C:\Windows\system32;C:\Windows;C:\Windows\System32\Wbem;C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\;C:\Program Files (x86)\Java\jdk1.7.0_79\bin;C:\Program Files\Git\cmd;C:\Program Files\TortoiseGit\bin;C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Local\Microsoft\WindowsApps;;C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop\eclipse-jee-oxygen-R-win32-x86_64\eclipse;;.]
2018-07-05 23:02:51.895  INFO 8932 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.a.c.c.C.[Tomcat].[localhost].[/]       : Initializing Spring embedded WebApplicationContext
2018-07-05 23:02:51.895  INFO 8932 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.web.context.ContextLoader            : Root WebApplicationContext: initialization completed in 2134 ms
2018-07-05 23:02:52.084  INFO 8932 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.ServletRegistrationBean  : Servlet dispatcherServlet mapped to [/]
2018-07-05 23:02:52.091  INFO 8932 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.FilterRegistrationBean   : Mapping filter: 'characterEncodingFilter' to: [/*]
2018-07-05 23:02:52.092  INFO 8932 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.FilterRegistrationBean   : Mapping filter: 'hiddenHttpMethodFilter' to: [/*]
2018-07-05 23:02:52.093  INFO 8932 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.FilterRegistrationBean   : Mapping filter: 'httpPutFormContentFilter' to: [/*]
2018-07-05 23:02:52.093  INFO 8932 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.FilterRegistrationBean   : Mapping filter: 'requestContextFilter' to: [/*]
2018-07-05 23:02:52.534  INFO 8932 --- [           main] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerAdapter : Looking for @ControllerAdvice: org.springframework.boot.web.servlet.context.AnnotationConfigServletWebServerApplicationContext@4c40b76e: startup date [Thu Jul 05 23:02:49 CST 2018]; root of context hierarchy
2018-07-05 23:02:52.634  INFO 8932 --- [           main] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/error]}" onto public org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity<java.util.Map<java.lang.String, java.lang.Object>> org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.error.BasicErrorController.error(javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest)
2018-07-05 23:02:52.637  INFO 8932 --- [           main] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/error],produces=[text/html]}" onto public org.springframework.web.servlet.ModelAndView org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.error.BasicErrorController.errorHtml(javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest,javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse)
2018-07-05 23:02:52.685  INFO 8932 --- [           main] o.s.w.s.handler.SimpleUrlHandlerMapping  : Mapped URL path [/webjars/**] onto handler of type [class org.springframework.web.servlet.resource.ResourceHttpRequestHandler]
2018-07-05 23:02:52.685  INFO 8932 --- [           main] o.s.w.s.handler.SimpleUrlHandlerMapping  : Mapped URL path [/**] onto handler of type [class org.springframework.web.servlet.resource.ResourceHttpRequestHandler]
2018-07-05 23:02:52.732  INFO 8932 --- [           main] o.s.w.s.handler.SimpleUrlHandlerMapping  : Mapped URL path [/**/favicon.ico] onto handler of type [class org.springframework.web.servlet.resource.ResourceHttpRequestHandler]
2018-07-05 23:02:52.958  INFO 8932 --- [           main] o.s.j.e.a.AnnotationMBeanExporter        : Registering beans for JMX exposure on startup
2018-07-05 23:02:53.111  INFO 8932 --- [           main] o.s.b.w.embedded.tomcat.TomcatWebServer  : Tomcat started on port(s): 8080 (http) with context path ''
2018-07-05 23:02:53.120  INFO 8932 --- [           main] c.x.springboot.SpringbootApplication     : Started SpringbootApplication in 3.981 seconds (JVM running for 5.608)
(2)测试。

在浏览器中输入http://localhost:8080/print,则会如下正常显示,就说明已经OK啦,帅不帅!
 

项目源码:https://github.com/xcbeyond/micro-service/tree/master/springboot